- I liked “Mathematical Thought from Ancient to Modern Times” by Kline.
- “The History and Concept of Mathematical Proof” by Krantz (formerly from Penn State!) looks interesting.
- “Proof: A Brief Historical Survey” looks cool.
- “A History of Mathematical Proof: Ancient Greece to the Computer Age” is more formal with no pictures and diagrams, but it’s written for non-mathematicians.
- “The History of Mathematical Proof in Ancient Traditions” by Chemla is AN ENTIRE BOOK devoted to the history of proofs in many cultures.
- I love “proofs without words”. (See e.g. Wikipedia, MAA, Sangaku)
- The aptly titled article “Aristotle and Mathematics” is more about logic and proof than it is about mathematics.