I proved a few simple but interesting theorems about integers that maximize a function $f$ when $f$ is a strictly concave function that maps real numbers to real numbers. For example, the real number that maximizes $f(x)=x(1-x)$ is $x=1/2$, but among all the integers, the maximum possible value of the function is 0. And that maximum is achieved twice with integers 0 and 1, $f(0)=0=f(1)$.

A function is strictly concave if you can pick any two points on its graph, draw a line between them, and the curve $y=f(x)$ between the two points lies entirely above the line between the two points.

### Theorem #1

Informally stated, the first theorem is that if you can find a real number $x$ such that $f(x)=f(x+1)$, then the integer(s) that maximize the concave function $f$ are the set $\{\mathrm{floor}(x+1), \mathrm{ceil}(x)\}$ where “floor” just means round down and “ceil” means round up. That set usually contains only one element which is $\mathrm{round}(x+1/2)$, but if $x$ is an integer, then it will contain two consecutive integers $x$ and $x+1$.

For example, if $f(x) = 4-4x^2$, then the value of $x$ that satisfies $f(x)=f(x+1)$ is $x=-1/2$ because $f(-1/2)=3=f(1/2)$. So the theorem says that any integer that maximizes $f$ must be in the set $$\begin{aligned}\{\mathrm{floor}(x+1), \mathrm{ceil}(x)\} &= \{\mathrm{floor}(-1/2+1), \mathrm{ceil}(-1/2)\}\\&= \{\mathrm{floor}(1/2), \mathrm{ceil}(-1/2)\} \\&= \{0\}.\end{aligned}$$ The integer that does the best is 0 which is also the real number that maximizes $f$.

Here is another example. If $f(x) = \sin(x)$, then the value of $x$ that satisfies $f(x)=f(x+1)$ is $x=1.0708$ because $f(1.0708)=0.877583=f(2.0708)$. So the theorem says that any integer that maximizes $f$ must be in the set $$\begin{aligned}\{\mathrm{floor}(x+1), \mathrm{ceil}(x)\} &= \{\mathrm{floor}(1.0708+1), \mathrm{ceil}(1.0708)\}\\&= \{\mathrm{floor}(2.0708), \mathrm{ceil}(1.0708)\} \\&= \{2\}.\end{aligned}.$$ The integer that does the best is 2.

So, that was the first theorem. In part 2, we state a second theorem about finding the integer which maximizes a quadratic with some examples and one application the game “Slay the Spire”.

If you want to see a more formal mathematical writeup, click here.